1 become ground down or deteriorate; "Her confidence eroded" [syn: gnaw, gnaw at, eat at, wear away]
- To eat into or away; to corrode; as, canker erodes the flesh.
Erode (pronounced e-road-u, ஈரோடு (Īrōṭu) in Tamil)is one of the eight municipal corporations of Tamil Nadu and the headquarters of Erode district, Tamil nadu, India. It is situated on the western bank of the river Kaveri between 121 ° 19.5" and 11 ° 81.05" North latitude and 77 ° 42.5" and 77 ° 44.5" East longitude. It has a population of about five hundred thousand. Agriculture and textiles play an important role in its economy. It is the 8th largest urban agglomeration in the state of Tamil Nadu. It was made a full-fledged corporation in the month of January, 2008.
Erode was under the regime of local Gangakulam kings forming indegenous Chera kings and Western Ganga Dynasty. After a short rule of Cholas with Dharapuram as their Headquarters, Muslims (Modeen Sulthans) took over the rule after which Nayaks of Madurai ruled. Then Hyder Ali and Tippu Sultan with occasionally rebelling polygar Dheeran Chinnamalai Gounder had their sway. In 1799, when Tippu fell to the British, British East India Company took over the administration after hanging Chinnamalai by deceit.
During Hyder Ali's regime, Erode flourished with 300 houses and A population of 1500. A mud fort, with a garrison of 4000 soldiers surrounded by coconut groves and fertile lands formed the boundary with river Kaveri on the north and Kalingarayan channel as the eastward boundary (By Bucchanan 7th and 8 November 1800).
Erode has upgraded into City corporation by Tamilnadu Government with effect from 01.01.2008.
Owing to the successive wars of Marathas, Mysore and British invasions, Erode become almost deserted and ruined. However, as peace was restored by the British, people returned and settled here. Within a year it began to grow with 400 houses, and a population of 2000. The garrison withdrew in 1807, and the ruined fort was leveled as a relief work during the famine in 1877. The place enclosed within the rampart was occupied by the houses. About a mile and half east of the city, there is an old bridge which spans the river Kaveri. The wall at "Pechiparai" situated at the present V.O.C.Park was once celebrated for its "wholesome and milky water". There are two old temples - one dedicated to Lord Siva and the other to Lord Vishnu.
Erode District was a part of Coimbatore and has its history intervened with Coimbatore district. It is difficult to separately deal with the history of Erode region. Together with Coimbatore district, Erode formed part of the ancient Kongu country known as "Kongu Nadu", whose history dates back to the Sangam era. It is found that in the early days, this area was occupied by tribes, most prominent among them being the "Kosars" reportedly having their headquarters at 'Kosamputhur' which is believed to have in due course become Coimbatore. These tribes were overpowered by the Rashtrakutas from whom the region fell into the hands of the Cholas who ruled supreme during the time of Raja Raja Chola. On the decline of Cholas, the Kongunadu came to be occupied by the Chalukyas and later by the Pandyas and Hoysalas.
Due to internal dissension in the Pandian Kingdom, the Muslim rulers from Delhi interfered and thus the area fell into the hands of Madurai Sultanate. This region was later wrested by Vijaya Nagar rulers after over throwing the Madurai Sultanate. For a few years, the area remained under Vijaya Nagar rule and later under the independent control of Madurai Nayakas. The rule of Muttu Virappa Nayak and later that of Thirumalai Nayak were marked by internal strife and intermittent wars which ruined the Kingdom. As a result of this, the Kongu region in which the present Erode District is situated, fell into the hands of the Mysore rulers from whom Hyder Ali took over the area. Later, consequent of the fall of Tippu Sultan of Mysore in 1799, the Kongu region came to be ceded to the East India Company by the Maharaja of Mysore who was restored to power by the company after defeating Tippu Sulltan. From then, till 1947 when India attained independence, the area remained under British control who initiated systematic revenue administration in the area.
Puranam says that Erode derives its name from Tamil Eera Odu meaning wet skull. According to the legends, Dakshaprajapathi, father-in-law of Shiva, conducted a yaga for which Shiva was not invited. However, his wife, Dakshayini came against the wishes of her husband. However, Dakshayini was heart-broken as she was not welcomed by her parents. She threw herself to the fire in the Yaga kundam and burnt to ashes. On hearing this, Shiva got enraged and severed the fifth head of Brahma. Due to the Brahmahatyadosham, the skull remained stuck to Siva's palm. He roamed throughout India and only when he arrived at Erode, the skull crashed and formed the Kapala Tirtham. The holy water of Kapala Tirtham can be found today at Arudra Kapaleeswarar Koil temple (to the left of the presiding deity in the form of a well) in Erode. This is also attested by the Bhairava Puranam. This is ratified by the presence of the place names where the other bits of skull shattered around, Vellodu (lit. white skull), Perodu (lit. big skull) and Chittodu (lit. small skull) which are located around Erode. Vaishnavite theory states it is related to the shell of the Kurma Vishnu which fell at the spot.
Normally the name of the place will have a geographical background. In that we cannot compare the modern geography with that of ancient one, which we a re not aware of.
Mordern historians including Periyar contend that Erode has its origin in Tamil Eru Odai meaning two rivers. This claim is based on the existence of two water courses, Perumpallam in Surampatti and Kalingarayan in Brahmana Periya Agraharam and Kasipalayam, themselves different neighboring villages (municipalities now) distinct outside the border of the old Erode village's boundaries.
Jurisdictional ChangesErode District came into being as a result of the bifurcation of Coimbatore District, through the G.O.Ms.No.1917, Revenue dated 31.08.1979. Bhavani, Dharapuram, Erode and Sathyamangalam taluks were included in Coimbatore district which had a composite character, at the beginning of the century. Of these, Sathyamangalam Taluk was renamed as Gobichettipalayam taluk retaining Sathyamangalam as a sub-taluk. In 1975, Sathyamangalam sub-taluk was upgraded into a taluk. In 1979 Perundurai Sub Taluk was upgraded into taluk and 1981 Kangayam Sub Taluk was upgraded in; to taluk. These seven taluks were grouped together to constitute the new district of Erode.
Now Erode District consists of 7 taluks viz., Sathyamangalam, Bhavani, Gobichettipalayam, Perundurai, Erode, Kangayam and Dharapuram. Erode, being a Corporation in the district, consists of Periya Semur, Surampatti, Veerappan Chathram and Kasipalayam grade III municipalities. There 4 Special Grade Municipalities in the district viz., Sathyamangalam, Bhavani, Gobichettipalayam, and Dharapuram. There are 59 Town Panchayats and 3 Village Panchayats declared as Census Town as per Census2001 and 539 Revenue Villages. There are 20 Community Development Blocks in the district.
Erode city is administrated by Erode Municipal Corporation. It also serves as the headquarters of the district with the same name. The city has one Members of Parliament representing the Gobi constituency. The city is headed by a Mayor, under whom are the Deputy Mayor and several councillors elected by people representing administrative wards; as well as a corporation Commissioner of the rank of IAS to administer the city. The district is headed by the District Collector of the rank of IAS. The District court is the highest court of appeal in Erode. The city has seen moderate to high development in spite of funds constraint.
Until now the city's police force is headed by Superintendent of police(SP),which will be soon replaced by City Police Commissioner in the grade of Inspector General(IG) of Police.
Location & BoundariesErode is located at a distance of 100 km. East of Coimbatore and is situated on the bank of river Cauvery between 11 ° 19.5" and 11 ° 81.05" North latitude and 77 ° 42.5" and 77 ° 44.5" East latitude. Erode local planning area extends over an area of 76.21Sq km with the population of about 5 lakhs (City) and about 30 Lakhs (District) as per 2006 (estimated).It is the eight largest city in Tamilnadu. It has an average elevation of 183 metres (600 feet)
Erode District lies on the extreme north of Tamil Nadu. It is bounded mostly by Karnataka State and also River Palar covers pretty long distance. To the East lies Namakkal and Karur Districts. Dindigal District is its immediate neighbour to the South and on the West, it has Coimbatore and Nilgiri Districts, as its boundaries. Thus Erode District is essentially a land-locked area having no sea-cost of its own.
GeologyThe soils are mostly red sand and gravel with moderate amounts of red-loam and occasional black loam tracts. Vast stretches of the upland regions are mostly and gravelly. Red-loam occurs mostly in land under Kalingarayan channel and in beds of tanks in Erode city and to some lesser extent in the valleys in Perundurai and Dharapuram. It also occurs in the hilly tracts of Bhavani.
Soils of Bhavani, Erode, Dharapuram and Perundurai are chiefly gravelly, stony and sandy of the red variety. Soils of Gobichettipalayam and Sathyamangalam taluks are mostly of the red sandy variety. Red loam is prevalent mostly in Gobichettipalayam and Perundurai taluks
ClimateErode in general is characterised with a scanty rainfall and a dry climate. Maximum rainfall is recorded in Gobichettipalayam and Bhavani. The Palghat gap in the Western Ghats, which has a soothing effect in the climate of Coimbatore District, does not render much help in bringing down the dry climate in this area. The cool-wind that gushes out of the west coast through Palghat gap looses its coolness and becomes dry by the time it crosses Coimbatore district and reaches Erode region.
Erode District has dry weather throughout except during the monsoon season. Generally the first two months of the year are pleasant, but in March, Mercury gains an upward trend which persists till the end of May. Highest temperature is normally recorded during May. The scanty showers during this period do not provide any relief to the oppressive heat. There is a light improvement in the climate during June-August period. During this pre-monsoon period, the mercury reverses its trend and by September, the sky gets overcast heavily but the rains are meager. North-east monsoon sets in vigorously only during October-November and by December, the rains disappear rendering the climate clear but pleasant.
Land UseThe extent of the Erode local planning area is 76.21 km² Developed land within the local planning area constitutes 13.44% of total area. The developed area in the municipal area alone constitutes 83.25% of total municipal area.
Commercial area has been developed along the road side in all major roads, in municipal area along Kongan road near the southern boundary of the local planning area, mainly the commercial area in Erode city is concentrated near the junction of Brough road and catchery road and Bazaar area.
In the city, the industries users are found along the Nethaji road. Most of the industries are located outside the municipal limits. The industrially developed Perundurai road is near the fringe of Erode city road. Some industrial development is also found along Sathy road. The industries that are located within the Erode city belong to mainly oil and rice mills and allied trades, such as engg, works, automobiles and power looms. The industries such as dyeing and power loom textiles are predominant in LPA. Industries belonging to Dhal mill, Cotton textiles, Vanaspathy manufacturing, wax and screen printing, powerloom, sizing, wraping and printing press are also found in and around Erode city. Within the city the industrial unit occupies 6 .69% of the city area. Whereas the industrial as a whole covers 136 hectares and accounts for 1.80% of the Erode LPA.
Famous Personalities from Erode
- Thandhai Periyar
- Theeran Chinnamalai
- Ramanujam Pillai
- Tiruppur Kumaran
Places of interest
- Thindal - 5 km from Erode, well known for real estate, temple of Lord Muruga.
- Bhavanisagar Dam, Erode
- Thanthai Periyar Memorial House, E.V.R Street, Erode
- Chennimalai - 20 km from Erode, well known town for Handloom Clothes, temple of Lord Muruga.
- Vellode - 15 km from Erode - Birds Sanctuary
- Bhavani - 15 km from Erode - Confluence of rivers Bhavani and Cauvery,
- Kodumudi-35 km from Erode - small town on the banks of river Cauvery with lot of temples
- Bannari Amman Temple located at Sathyamangalam* Kodiveri-located near gobichetipalayam, popularly known for cine shootings.
- Gobichettipalayam-well known for cine shootings, famous temples including Pariyur Amman Temple, which is entirely built by marble stone.
- Sathyamangalam forest sactuary for wild animals
- Kangayam -Sivan Hills(Lord Muruga Temple)- 45 KM from Erode
- V.O.C park, Erode
Erode district is one among the industrially developing districts. Industry and Trade occupy a place of prominence in the economy of the district. Industries that flourished in early days in and around Erode area were handloom weaving and carpet manufacturing. The advent of modern era has changed these industries to some extent and the powerloom weaving is slowly replacing it. There are 24189 registered SSI units as on 31.12.2000 in the district besides 59 Large Scale Units.
The district has high concentration of powerloom & Handloom weaving, Rice milling, Edible oil expelling units. The other industries are Tanneries, Chemical & Plastic Products, Paper Products, Basic Metal Products industries etc.
Erode is a major Railway town and is home to the largest Diesel and Electric locomotive sheds in Southern Railway, and both these locomotive shed put together house more than 300 locomotives. Locomotives from Erode sheds haul trains all over India
Erode District in Tamil Nadu State is very important market centre for Turmeric. Turmeric is received, not only from Erode district, but also from the other parts of Tamil Nadu and adjoining district like Mysore in Karnataka State. Daily Turmeric market rate is updated in the website www.agmarknet.nic.in
Erode is well known for marketing of textile products of Handloom, Powerloom and Readymade Garments. The Handloom and Powerloom products such as Cotton Sarees, Bed Spreads, Carpets, Lungies, Printed Fabrics, Towels, Dhotis are marketed here in bulk.
Kangeyam is famous for Bulls, Rice Mills and Oil Mills. Kangeyam cows are not noted for their yield but their availability in large numbers has helped the district to make a mark in the field of dairy development.Also one of the largest coco-nut oil producers in south-india.
EducationErode is primarily an industrial and Agricultural Area. Same way the people in this generation show much importance to the Education also. Due to this Erode has developed as an educational hub. A lot of people from all over the country (especially South India) come and do their higher education in this area. All this growth can be attributed to the high entrepreneurial skills of the people from this area. Montesari education is also famous for children under 5 years. Shobana madam is famous in that.
Health Care OrganizationsHuge number of Health care organizations are available in the city. Also there are several Ambulance service providers are available to help the people for emergency.
- Kovai Medical Centre Hospitals
- Lotus hospitals
- vasan eye care hospital
- MMCH Hospital
CinemaAs cinema theatres in the city are more and equally spaced through the city, most of the bus stops are referred with the names of cinema theatres nearby. Some of the cinema theatres in the city are as follows
- Abirami Cinemas (abirami & devi abirami) 70MM A/C DTS
- V.S.P A/C DTS DOLBY DIGITAL
- Aanoor A/C DTS
- Krishna DTS
- Sangeetha DTS
- Srinivasa DTS
- Star DTS
- Lakshmi DTS
- Chandika DTS
- Bharathi DSP
- Aanapoorani DSP
Dina Thanthi, Dina Malar, Malai Malar(evening daily) are the prominent Tamil news dailies currently printed in the city. The Hindu is the most widely read English daily.
Local cable TVKing TV, King TV2 ,Karan TV, MCN TV are the local cable television networks.
Radio stationsErode City is served on the FM dial by Suriyan FM, frequency 93.5 MHz, run by the Sun Network, and Kodai FM (AIR) frequency 100.5 MHz, by the Government of India. Community Radios currently aired are Kongu Engg College FM and Sengunthar Engg College FM.
RoadwaysThe city is well connected to various parts of Tamil Nadu, by private and public bus services. The bus station, near V.O.C Park, runs local and mofussil (city-to-city) bus services which connect people to nearby towns and villages. Bus services are frequent, once every two to five minutes. The city is also well-connected to the other cities of Tamil Nadu, southern Karnataka and Kerala through private & public charter buses.
The central bus station runs long distance services to major cities of the State and South India such as Chennai, Madurai, Coimbatore, Bangalore, Tirunelveli, Nagercoil and Tirupathi. One can get buses from Erode to almost any part of the state
On the road infrastructure front,
National highway projects in ErodeNH-47 (Salem–Kochi) (Via Bhavani, Perundurai of Erode District) NH-209(Dindugul-Bengaluru) (Via P.Puliyampatty,Sathyamangalam of Erode District) NH-67 (Nagapattinam-Ootacamand or Ooty)(Via Vellakovil,Kangayam of Erode District)
State highway project
RailwaysErode (Station Code:ED) is the hub of Southern Railway's operation to connect Tamil Nadu to various parts of India, notably regions in Kerala, Andhra Pradesh, Bengal, Maharastra, Karnataka, Delhi, and Madhya Pradesh. Diesel Loco Shed Erode homes over 120 Diesel-Electric locomotives. It was set up in 1962 and is one of the premier locomotive maintenance sheds in the country. The ISO 9001 certified shed maintains locomotives which haul important trains up to Kanniyakumari, Trivandrum, Madurai, Chennai, Bengaluru,Mysore,Mumbai,Rajkot,Pune etc.
Erode Railway Junction has three branches leading to Karur, Coimbatore, Salem and currently there are 5 platforms. It has the state of art technology in electrification and was the first electrified link from Chennai with broad gauge conversion.It also serves as the hub for water filling facilities and food provision to all long trains that run to the length and breadth of the country. The station is well connected by buses round the clock. The station is efficiently maintained by the great Myl.
It is proud to achieve the status of ISO certification for its best service in Electric loco shed and WAP(which can been seen on almost all state running electric engines embarked as WAP-ERODE both in English and Hindi)
Tamilnadu State Transport Corporation has a Headquarters in Erode. The Central Bus terminus of the city is one of the biggest of the state. It can occupy 500 buses at a time. The roadway connects all the parts of the state with the city. Plenty of Town buses are plying to connect all the parts.
Also there are many of the private travel agents functioning in the city.
DemographicsAs of 2001, the Indian census indicates that Erode had a population of 151,184. Males constitute 51% of the population and females 49%. Erode has an average literacy rate of 78%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 83%, and female literacy is 72%. In Erode, 9% of the population is under 6 years of age.
External links1. Erode - Official Website 2. Erode Municipal Corporation - Official Website 3. Erode Online Directory-
erode in German: Irodu
erode in Bishnupriya: এরোডে
erode in Dutch: Erode (stad)
erode in Newari: एरोड
erode in Japanese: イーロードゥ
erode in Portuguese: Erode
erode in Sicilian: Erode (cità)
erode in Simple English: Erode
erode in Swedish: Erode
erode in Tamil: ஈரோடு
erode in Vietnamese: Erode
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